Is The New Monkeypox A Sexually Transmitted Disease?

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  • Monday, 25 Jul, 2022
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Is The New Monkeypox A Sexually Transmitted Disease

•    India has documented four instances of monekypox, the most recent of which was a 31-year-old Delhi male who had never been outside of India. 

•    The state of Kerala has now confirmed three further instances of monkeypox.

•    WHO has declared monkeypox a worldwide public health emergency.

•    An unreported case of monkeypox has been found in Delhi. 

If so, does it seem to be a widespread issue? This sickness is contagious, so how can you guard against it?

ORIGIN

•    When it comes to the illness known as monkeypox, there's no surprise. 

•    It was initially discovered in a monkey colony in the late 1950s. 

•    Variola and vaccinia viruses are in the same genus as this virus (the virus used in one of the available smallpox vaccines). 

•    It is named after a group of monkeys in Copenhagen, Denmark, who were infected with the disease in 1958.

ZOONOTIC DISEASE: HOW IS IT TRANSMISSIBLE?

•    Animals play a major role in the transmission of monkeypox. 

•    The virus may infect both humans and primates, and wild rodents are often found to be infected. 

•    In terms of virulence, the West African strain looks to be less so than the Central African variant. 

•    Dr. Dhiren Gupta, an intensivist and senior consultant at Sir Gangaram Hospital, said that the West African strain, also known as clad 2, is spreading over the globe.

•    Wild animals or animal flesh (wild animals) or intimate contact with sick individuals may lead to the spread of the disease. 

•    If someone is in close proximity to an infected person for more than three hours, they may get infected through big droplets. 

•    The incidence of secondary attacks is around 7%. It's not as contagious as the common cold or the chicken pox.

. ZOONOTIC DISEASE: HOW IS IT TRANSMISSIBLE?

•    Animals play a major role in the transmission of monkeypox. 

•    The virus may infect both humans and primates, and wild rodents are often found to be infected. 

•    In terms of virulence, the West African strain looks to be less so than the Central African variant. 

•    Dr. Dhiren Gupta, an intensivist and senior consultant at Sir Gangaram Hospital, said that the West African strain, also known as clad 2, is spreading over the globe.

•    Wild animals or animal flesh (wild animals) or intimate contact with sick individuals may lead to the spread of the disease. 

•    If someone is in close proximity to an infected person for more than three hours, they may get infected through big droplets. 

•    The incidence of secondary attacks is around 7%. It's not as contagious as the common cold or the chicken pox.

WHAT PEOPLE ARE MOST AT RISK OF CONTACTING MONKEYPOX?

•    A large number of monkeypox cases have been reported in males.

•    The WHO has identified the LGBTQ population and men who have sex with other men as a health risk.

•    Medical personnel - Prolonged and intimate contact with the patient during treatment might lead to transmission through skin-to-skin contact as well.

•    Chronically ill persons are known as immunocompromised people.

Is it a sexually transmitted disease?

•    At this time, this epidemic is concentrated among males who have sex with men, particularly those with several sexual partners," the World Health Organization (WHO) said. 

•    When it comes to protecting the health, rights, and dignity of men who engage in intercourse, Dr. Tedros says, "It's thus necessary that all governments cooperate closely with communities of men who have intercourse with males." 

Nonetheless, does it qualify as an STD?

•    Epidemiologists and health professionals differ. 

•    We don't have enough information to declare that it's only an STD, or that it just spreads via sexual contact. 

•    We can't categorize it solely as HIV since these males are in close touch, but it isn't the same as HIV. 

•    “Another method of transmission is via unsafe and unregulated blood transfusions," stated Dr Sanjay Rai, Professor of Community Medicine at AIIMS, in an interview. 

•    For NACO, the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare of the Government of India, Dr. Rai also serves as a national trainer in HIV/AIDS Counselling and Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) from 1997 and 2008.

High-risk patients are defined as those who engage in sex with other guys. That's not the case, though. Dr.Giridhar Babu, Professor and Head Life Course Epidemiology at the Public Health Foundation of India, says anybody may catch monkeypox if they come into touch with persons who have these skin areas up until scabs are created and a normal skin returns.

Progression of Symptoms by  Dr. Gupta

•    Fever, headache, lymphadenopathy, back pain, myalgia, and extreme exhaustion are all common symptoms of the prodromal phase, which may last anywhere from three to five days on average. 

•    All across the body, the lymph nodes might become swollen, or they can be concentrated in a few places.

•    As soon as a fever is present, the rash generally develops and lasts for two to three weeks, but rashes without a prodrome have known. 

•    Painful at first, but it soon becomes irritating. Macules of 2 to 5 mm in diameter are the most common form of the rash. 

•    Macules progress to pustules, papules, vesicles, and vesicles after a while.

•    Umbilication (a central depression on the lesion's top) is common in lesions that are well-circumscribed, deeply seated, and commonly begin on the face and spread to the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet after time.

•    Patients with monkeypox may present with a variety of nonspecific test results. Leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia, and hypoalbuminemia are a few of the other symptoms to watch out for.

What do you do if you come into contact with MONKEYPOX?

•    A smallpox immunization may prevent sickness if administered within four days. 

•    However, Dr Gupta says that although vaccination may be considered for up to 14 days after exposure, if administered between days 4 and 14, immunization is likely to lessen the symptoms of sickness, but not prevent the disease.

•    If indicated therapy is used, it is recommended for persons with serious illness and those at risk of serious illness (eg, those younger than 8 years of age, pregnant or breastfeeding women, patients with complications of the infection, immunocompromised patients). 

•    For now, Dr. Gupta recommends tecovirimat as the treatment of choice, while other specialists may recommend the use of tecovirimat and cidofovir in individuals with more severe illness. 

•    But specialists believe that only a small percentage of persons under the age of 30 need to be actively treated by doctors.


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